Raccoon Medical Mystery

Article by Juliana Sorem, DVM, Melanie Piazza and Alison Hermance

In this video, Dr. Amy Allen explores the raccoon’s nasal passages endoscopically while WildCare’s Brittany Morse
monitors the raccoon under anesthesia.
The heavy mucus coming from the raccoon’s eyes and nose was caked on his face. Here he is being sedated for a nasal flush. Photo by Alison Hermance

Upon his intake at WildCare’s Wildlife Hospital, our Medical Staff noted that this young raccoon was in severe respiratory distress and he had thick mucus coming from his nose and eyes. Our team’s treatment plan for this raccoon involved careful consideration of all of his symptoms. Little did they know this case was about to turn into a serious medical mystery!

Dr. Sorem takes samples for the distemper test and flushes the raccoon’s nose. Photo by Alison Hermance

Heavy nasal discharge can be a symptom of distemper, a very contagious disease between mammals like raccoons and skunks, so Medical Staff had a volunteer prep an enclosure in quarantine in one of WildCare’s wards. Any distemper species (raccoon, fox, skunk) with these symptoms must be considered a distemper suspect until proven otherwise. The team treated his injuries, hydrated him with subcutaneous fluids, gave him medications for pain, and started him on a course of antibiotics due to the severe blood-tinged nasal discharge.

Over the next several days, the raccoon demonstrated a feisty nature and a great appetite. Unfortunately, Medical Staff saw minimal improvement in his nasal discharge with antibiotic treatment. After five days they sedated him to take radiographs (x-rays), to run bloodwork, and to test for distemper. Blood tests came back showing anemia and elevated blood protein (probably due to inflammation), and the radiographs showed no trauma to skull or nasal passages and clear lungs. Interestingly, they also showed old (healing) fractures in both of the raccoon’s wrists, but we don’t know how those injuries occurred. The raccoon continued to receive supportive care and his nightly routine included creating chaos in his enclosure.

The bright light of the endoscope is clearly visible inside the raccoon’s nasal passage! Photo by Melanie Piazza

As weeks passed, WildCare’s Veterinarian Dr. Sorem and the team became increasingly concerned that none of the treatments effectively resolved the raccoon’s symptoms. He continued to eat well and gain weight, and his attitude remained feisty and wild, which is always a good sign in the Wildlife Hospital. The distemper test came back negative, which was good news, but the mucus continued to cause the animal significant distress.

Medical Staff decided to call upon the expertise of Dr. Amy Allen, a San Rafael-based veterinary Internal Medicine Specialist and owner of Animal Internal Medicine (AIM) Mobile Endoscopy. Dr. Allen brought her equipment to WildCare to examine the raccoon’s nasal passages endoscopically. (WildCare is very grateful to Dr. Allen and her assistant for their generous donation of their time, equipment and expertise to help us diagnose this raccoon!) With her superior instruments, Dr. Allen was able to visualize the full length of the raccoon’s nasal passages all the way back to his larynx. She discovered an enlarged left tonsil as well as a thick band of tissue that divided the nasopharynx, the deepest part of the nasal passages, into left and right halves. Scroll down to see the rhinoscopy photos!

This is not a normal finding in Dr. Allen’s usual patients (dogs and cats) but it was unknown if it was also abnormal for a raccoon. Part of the problem with diagnosing this raccoon’s illness is the lack of concrete veterinary information about his species. The team put out a call to Dr. Pesavento, a veterinarian doing research at the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine for her collection of CT scans of raccoon heads to determine the normal shape of a raccoon’s nasal passages. See box for more information on WildCare’s participation in Dr. Pesavento’s ground-breaking research.

In 2012, WildCare data helped Dr. Pesavento discover a new virus called a raccoon polyomavirus that was discovered to be the cause of a certain type of brain tumor in raccoons.

WildCare’s Medical Staff had reported, and had sent to the lab at UC Davis for postmortem testing, a number of raccoons with oddly passive behavior and the symptoms of head trauma without an obvious cause.

The submitted samples came to the attention of Dr. Pesavento, and diagnostic input from WildCare Medical Staff helped her isolate the animals with tumors and ultimately discover the polyomavirus. Read about it in the LA Times here.

As of this writing we are still waiting to see the CT scans and compare those raccoons’ heads with that of our young patient.

Dr. Amy Allen of Animal Internal Medicine and her assistant donated their time and equipment to examine our raccoon patient. We’re grateful! Photo by Melanie Piazza

The other interesting thing Dr. Allen’s endoscopy found was a swollen and reddened mass on the band of tissue, and some areas that looked like they might be fungal growth. Dr. Allen was able to obtain samples from deep within the nasal passages to submit for a biopsy and fungal culture. It is truly wonderful for WildCare Medical Staff to work with specialists on cases like this one, and the opportunity for advanced learning and increased diagnostic capability make medical mysteries a very important learning opportunity for WildCare’s medical team. Scroll down to see the actual photos with descriptions from the raccoon rhinoscopy!

Unfortunately the biopsy results just showed a severe bacterial infection with thickened connective tissue (possibly scar tissue). No fungal organisms were seen on the biopsy and only a small number of likely incidental fungal organisms grew on the fungal culture. These findings raised further the question of whether the structure dividing the raccoon’s nasal passages is a normal feature of raccoon anatomy vs. an anomalous structure that might be contributing to the chronic infection.

Raccoon Rhinoscopy

Click each image to see what Dr. Allen saw during her endoscopic exploration of the raccoon’s nasal passages!

Medical cases like this give WildCare Medical Staff an invaluable opportunity to learn new skills. Here Dr. Allen works with Clinic Manager Brittany Morse. Photo by Melanie Piazza

Throughout all this, and after over 40 days in care, the raccoon was still eating well and gaining weight but nasal discharge persisted despite empirical use of several antibiotics. Could this be a bacterial infection that was resistant to the antibiotics that are normally effective? Dr. Sorem decided that we should run a bacterial culture but, because the raccoon was already on antibiotics and this could interfere with the culture results, we decided to stop all antibiotics for five days before obtaining a new sample of the nasal discharge.

Once again the team sedated the raccoon in order to get samples of discharge from deep inside his nose. These were submitted for bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivity testing. The results came back a few days later and showed that the main bacteria growing in his nose (of the klebsiella species) is one that should have been susceptible to one of the antibiotics (enrofloxacin) he was already on. So, we made one last-ditch effort by adding a new antibiotic (doxycycline) that attacks a class of bacteria that is difficult to grow on cultures. Now we had to wait once again to see if there was any improvement.

Finally, good news!

As of this writing, and after eight days on the new antibiotics, the raccoon is showing almost no nasal discharge! The small amount of discharge still present is clear, which is a much less concerning color, and he is healthy enough to move to an outdoor enclosure this weekend! We will continue this medication for two more weeks, and, with luck and ongoing excellent care, this medical mystery will finish with a tremendous amount of new knowledge for our Medical Staff, and the release of a healthy raccoon back to the wild!

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This entry was posted in Wildlife Patient Stories by Alison Hermance.

30 Responses to “Raccoon Medical Mystery”

  1. Carolyn Hanko

    You go you guys! Great work with helping this little fella! He must have been so uncomfortable!! 🙁

    Thanks for all you are doing to help animals! 😀

  2. Joan

    Thanks to all the participants for their great compassion for wildlife and their persistent efforts to heal their suffering.


    This is an amazing saga! Thank you for saving this poor soul, Wildcare. Also Thank you!!! to Dr. Allen and Dr. Pesavento.

  4. Jill Goodfriend

    Thank you so much for your detailed animal stories! I hang on every photo and description! In my next life I will be an MD or a DVM because in this life, as an RN, I cannot learn enough about medicine, for humans and animals.
    Many thanks for your terrific newsletters!
    Jill goodfriend

  5. Judith Gottesman

    Fascinating story. So glad he seems to be on his way to health. Curious to hear if his anatomy is normal and surprising how little is known in the area.


    I call you guys “angels on Earth” and, once again, you’ve proven me right. 💜

  7. Tony c

    Awesome work and dedication!

  8. A.J. Ruiz

    May God Bless you all. Thank you for all your good work, your patience, and your dedication to these beautiful creatures. You are truly Americas best!

  9. Cariadne

    Thank you for such a fascinatingly detailed story of the raccoon and of the superb care and attention all of you gave to him deepened by the investigations by the specialists. Your work is totally inspiring

  10. Susan Welsford

    Thank you for your dedication, perseverance and love for the little guy. He was very lucky to have found his way to you! 💛💜💚

  11. Mark

    Great medical mystery story! I’m glad everyone stuck with this raccoon. Props to EVERYONE who was involved.

  12. Lisa M. Hoytt

    Thank you so much for caring about our precious wildlife. This story makes me so happy. Thank you
    With all of our construction of homes, developments and highways, we need to take special care
    of all wildlife. Thank you Dr. Allen, Dr. Sorem and all medical staff.

  13. Silvia M Valles

    Excellent information! Thanks so much for such a detailed article.
    I would like to also thank all the veterinarians involved in this investigation. My late adoptive father was a veterinarian and I know how valuable their time is, so guys, thank you so very much for donation your time and provide necessary equipment to treat and save our native wildlife.

  14. Kim Cassidy

    So what AB did you end up using

    • Alison Hermance

      It turned out the bacteria cultured were Klebsiella species which was susceptible to enrofloxacin, one of the antibiotics the raccoon was already on. Medical Staff put him on doxycycline in addition, and that combination seems to have been the answer as his symptoms are resolving.

  15. Sandy

    Outstading work you guys. You’re the best’


  16. amy malick

    You guys are amazing and I love every one of your updates. We are so grateful for all you do. We live around the corner and my son goes to school across the street. We stopped in this afternoon to visit the ambassadors as we often do, and it’s always such a magical time. Thank you!

  17. Karen

    So what was the bacteria?

    • Alison Hermance

      The bacteria cultured were Klebsiella species which was susceptible to enrofloxacin, one of the antibiotics the raccoon was already on. Medical Staff put him on doxycycline in addition, and that combination seems to have been the answer as his symptoms are resolving.

  18. Georgia kolthoff

    We are so lucky here in Marin County that we have a Wildlife Center. I am always bringing birds or other wildlife to them when I find them injured and I know they will always have the best care. Thank you so much for being there for our precious animals. Much ❤️ To you all.

  19. Doreen Serb

    As someone who had a golfball size of tissue removed behind my left eye via my sinus cavity this raccoon has my complete sympathy. He has not been having fun at all, but thanks to you and the Davis doctor he now has a shot at a happy raccoonish life. Thank you.

  20. peter hoffman

    Thank you so much, from the Boston area, for what you do and for your amazing dedication!

  21. Jeanie Boshoven

    THANK YOU team !!!!
    The respect you gave this innocent Raccoon was fabulous !!! Hugs to you all…

  22. Nath

    Great story, can you tell us what the C/S grew and what antibiotic was used?

    • Alison Hermance

      The bacteria cultured were Klebsiella species which was susceptible to enrofloxacin, one of the antibiotics the raccoon was already on. Medical Staff put him on doxycycline in addition, and that combination seems to have been the answer as his symptoms are resolving.

  23. Elizabeth Charlton

    I’m so grateful that animals in need have you wonderful people to help them.

  24. Patti Capretta

    We are so fortunate to have in our lovely area of California a group of dedicated, intelligent, compassionate professionals who will take the time to go the far extra miles for our fellow animal “brethren” as they deserve all the care and support as we do. They are a part of the natural world and it is our duty to care for them to the best of our abilities to strive to keep the balance of nature alive and well…kudos and our heartfelt thanks for your kindness and dedication in assisting these innocents. Heal swiftly little guy and go back to your wild place!

  25. Terri Clarke

    I loved reading and “experiencing” this whole process. Thank you so much for not assuming it was rabies and putting him down. So many people already have their minds made up without even having the decency to test! God Bless All of you!

  26. Anita I Thomsen

    This story is faintly reminiscent of a raccoon patient we had many years ago. Unfortunately we were all in the learning process and funding for any sort of extra care was minimal at best. I am so glad things have changed with the years, extensive wildlife care is becoming increasingly common and the information gleaned is helping new and old rehabbers alike to better understand the care each species needs and deserves. Kudos to Wildcare for your persistence and love for your wild patients!




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